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During the trip Lincoln remarked to Hay that he felt weak; on the morning of November 19, Lincoln mentioned to Nicolay that he was dizzy.

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Hay noted that during the speech Lincoln's face had "a ghastly color" and that he was "sad, mournful, almost haggard. A protracted illness followed, which included a vesicular rash; it was diagnosed as a mild case of smallpox. It thus seems highly likely that Lincoln was in the prodromal period of smallpox when he delivered the Gettysburg address. Prayer, by Reverend T.

Stockton , D. Oration, by Hon. Edward Everett "The Battles of Gettysburg". Music, Hymn "Consecration Chant" by B. French, Esq. Dirge "Oh!

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Percival, music by Alfred Delaney , sung by Choir selected for the occasion. Benediction, by Reverend H. Baugher, D. While it is Lincoln's short speech that has gone down in history as one of the finest examples of English public oratory, it was Everett's two-hour oration that was slated to be the "Gettysburg address" that day.

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His now seldom-read 13,word oration began:. Standing beneath this serene sky, overlooking these broad fields now reposing from the labors of the waning year, the mighty Alleghenies dimly towering before us, the graves of our brethren beneath our feet, it is with hesitation that I raise my poor voice to break the eloquent silence of God and Nature. But the duty to which you have called me must be performed;—grant me, I pray you, your indulgence and your sympathy. But they, I am sure, will join us in saying, as we bid farewell to the dust of these martyr-heroes, that wheresoever throughout the civilized world the accounts of this great warfare are read, and down to the latest period of recorded time, in the glorious annals of our common country, there will be no brighter page than that which relates the Battles of Gettysburg.

Lengthy dedication addresses like Everett's were common at cemeteries in this era.

Those addresses often linked cemeteries to the mission of Union. Lincoln's address followed the oration by Edward Everett , who subsequently included a copy of the Gettysburg Address in his book about the event Address of the Hon. Shortly after Everett's well-received remarks, Lincoln spoke for only a few minutes. Despite the historical significance of Lincoln's speech, modern scholars disagree as to its exact wording, and contemporary transcriptions published in newspaper accounts of the event and even handwritten copies by Lincoln himself differ in their wording, punctuation, and structure.

It is the only version to which Lincoln affixed his signature, and the last he is known to have written. Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation, or any nation so conceived and so dedicated, can long endure. We are met on a great battle-field of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of that field, as a final resting place for those who here gave their lives that that nation might live.

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It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this. James McPherson notes this connection in his review of Wills's book. In contrast, writer Adam Gopnik , in The New Yorker , notes that while Everett's Oration was explicitly neoclassical , referring directly to Marathon and Pericles , "Lincoln's rhetoric is, instead, deliberately Biblical. It is difficult to find a single obviously classical reference in any of his speeches. Lincoln had mastered the sound of the King James Bible so completely that he could recast abstract issues of constitutional law in Biblical terms, making the proposition that Texas and New Hampshire should be forever bound by a single post office sound like something right out of Genesis.

Several theories have been advanced by Lincoln scholars to explain the provenance of Lincoln's famous phrase "government of the people, by the people, for the people". Despite many claims, there is no evidence a similar phrase appears in the Prologue to John Wycliffe 's English translation of the Bible.

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In a discussion "A more probable origin of a famous Lincoln phrase", [24] in The American Monthly Review of Reviews , Albert Shaw credits a correspondent with pointing out the writings of William Herndon , Lincoln's law partner, who wrote in the work Abraham Lincoln: The True Story of A Great Life that he had brought to Lincoln some of the sermons of abolitionist minister Theodore Parker , of Massachusetts , and that Lincoln was moved by Parker's use of this idea:.

I brought with me additional sermons and lectures of Theodore Parker, who was warm in his commendation of Lincoln. He liked especially the following expression, which he marked with a pencil, and which he in substance afterwards used in his Gettysburg Address: 'Democracy is direct self-government, over all the people, for all the people, by all the people. Craig R. Smith, in "Criticism of Political Rhetoric and Disciplinary Integrity", suggested Lincoln's view of the government as expressed in the Gettysburg Address was influenced by the noted speech of Massachusetts Senator Daniel Webster , the "Second Reply to Hayne" , in which Webster famously thundered "Liberty and Union, now and forever, one and inseparable!

It is not the creature of State legislatures; nay, more, if the whole truth must be told, the people brought it into existence, established it, and have hitherto supported it, for the very purpose, amongst others, of imposing certain salutary restraints on State sovereignties. Maryland , a case upholding federal authority to create a national bank and to be free from the State's powers to tax.

In asserting the superiority of federal power over the states, Chief Justice Marshall stated: "The government of the Union, then whatever may be the influence of this fact on the case , is, emphatically and truly, a government of the people. In form, and in substance, it emanates from them. Its powers are granted by them, and are to be exercised directly on them, and for their benefit. Wills observed Lincoln's usage of the imagery of birth, life, and death in reference to a nation "brought forth", "conceived", and that shall not "perish".


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Guelzo , the director of Civil War Era studies at Gettysburg College in Pennsylvania, [29] suggested that Lincoln's formulation "four score and seven" was an allusion to the King James Version of the Bible's Psalms , in which man's lifespan is given as "threescore years and ten; and if by reason of strength they be fourscore years". Lincoln was probably influenced by Lajos Kossuth —the formerly governor of Hungary —who gave a speech before the Ohio State Legislature in February "The spirit of our age is Democracy.

All for the people, and all by the people. Nothing about the people without the people—That is Democracy! Each of the five known manuscript copies of the Gettysburg Address is named for the person who received it from Lincoln. Lincoln gave copies to his private secretaries, John Nicolay and John Hay. Robert Lincoln began a search for the original copy in , which resulted in the discovery of a handwritten copy of the Gettysburg Address among the bound papers of John Hay—a copy now known as the "Hay copy" or "Hay draft".

The Hay draft differed from the version of the Gettysburg Address published by John Nicolay in in a number of significant ways: it was written on a different type of paper, had a different number of words per line and number of lines, and contained editorial revisions in Lincoln's hand. Both the Hay and Nicolay copies of the Address are within the Library of Congress, encased in specially designed, temperature-controlled, sealed containers with argon gas in order to protect the documents from oxidation and continued deterioration.

The Nicolay copy [a] is often called the "first draft" because it is believed to be the earliest copy that exists. In an article that included a facsimile of this copy, Nicolay, who had become the custodian of Lincoln's papers, wrote that Lincoln had brought to Gettysburg the first part of the speech written in ink on Executive Mansion stationery, and that he had written the second page in pencil on lined paper before the dedication on November This copy of the Gettysburg Address apparently remained in John Nicolay's possession until his death in , when it passed to his friend and colleague John Hay.

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The existence of the Hay copy [b] was first announced to the public in , after the search for the "original manuscript" of the Address among the papers of John Hay brought it to light. In this copy, as in the Nicolay copy, the words "under God" are not present. This version has been described as "the most inexplicable" of the drafts and is sometimes referred to as the "second draft".

Those who believe that it was completed on the morning of his address point to the fact that it contains certain phrases that are not in the first draft but are in the reports of the address as delivered and in subsequent copies made by Lincoln. It is probable, they conclude, that, as stated in the explanatory note accompanying the original copies of the first and second drafts in the Library of Congress , Lincoln held this second draft when he delivered the address. Everett was collecting the speeches at the Gettysburg dedication into one bound volume to sell for the benefit of stricken soldiers at New York's Sanitary Commission Fair.

The draft Lincoln sent became the third autograph copy, and is now in the possession of the Illinois State Historical Library in Springfield, Illinois , [44] where it is displayed in the Treasures Gallery of the Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum. The Bancroft copy [d] of the Gettysburg Address was written out by President Lincoln in February at the request of George Bancroft , the famed historian and former Secretary of the Navy , whose comprehensive ten-volume History of the United States later led him to be known as the "father of American History".

As this fourth copy was written on both sides of the paper, it proved unusable for this purpose, and Bancroft was allowed to keep it. This manuscript is the only one accompanied both by a letter from Lincoln transmitting the manuscript and by the original envelope addressed and franked by Lincoln. Kroch Library at Cornell. Discovering that his fourth written copy could not be used, Lincoln then wrote a fifth draft, which was accepted for the purpose requested.

The Bliss copy, [e] named for Colonel Alexander Bliss , Bancroft's stepson and publisher of Autograph Leaves , is the only draft to which Lincoln affixed his signature.